Geologists uncover Antarctica’s fossil forests

“Prehistoric polar forests were built for survival, but were not hardy enough to live in ultra-high concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A geologist is studying the tree fossil record in Antarctica from a mass extinction 250 million years ago, looking for clues to how greenhouse gases affected plants — then and now.”

By the trip’s end, the geologists had found fossil fragments of 13 trees. The discovered fossils reveal that the trees are over 260 million years old, meaning that this forest grew at the end of the Permian Period, before the first dinosaurs.

“People have known about the fossils in Antarctica since the 1910-12 Robert Falcon Scott expedition,” said Gulbranson, a paleoecologist and visiting assistant professor in UWM’s Department of Geosciences. “However, most of Antarctica is still unexplored. Sometimes, you might be the first person to ever climb a particular mountain.”

Learn More – University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee- Erik Gulbranson,

Featured Course – Restoring Urban Ecosystems

“The geologic record shows us the beginning, middle and end of climate change events,” Gulbranson said. “With further study, we can better understand how greenhouse gases and climate change affect life on Earth.”   (Question- Does his statement put the cart before the horse?)


National Pipeline Mapping System – National Gas and other Hazardous Liquids Pipeline

The U.S. Department of Transportation offers the public access to their National Pipeline Mapping System via a free online, interactive map and an iPhone app.  It displays general information for pipelines carrying gas and hazardous liquids, liquefied natural gas plants, and breakout tanks within a county-wide zone.

While the mapping system is not to be used as a precise identifier of pipelines in a location, the public can access general knowledge about potential sources of contamination in their area.  By turning on the visual indicators for accidents and incidents in the area, it’s possible to judge remediation efforts based on past events.  Watershed organizations can submit a data request report or find the companies that are operating pipelines in your area.  The system is also a useful tool for community outreach and education efforts, whether you’re simply identifying topics for public forums and workshops or looking critically at local remediation efforts.

Featured Training Program

Fracking Environmental Consequences

Could plate tectonics be tied to the development of life on Earth?

Could plate tectonics be tied to the development of life on Earth?
Earth is the only planet known to sustain life. It is also the only planet with active plate tectonics. Coincidence? Most geoscientists think not. In part two of EARTH Magazine’s feature on plate tectonics, EARTH correspondent Mary Caperton Morton examines the links between two phenomena that are unique to our planet.
Although other planets in our solar system possess active volcanoes, faults, and other evidence of surface deformation, Earth’s global plate tectonics is “a very rare animal,” according to Chris Hawkesworth, a geochemist at the University of Bristol in England. And life beyond our planet is rarer still.
The key ingredient for both seems to be water: Aqueous environments spawned the first single-celled organisms, and minerals become weaker when water is embedded in their crystalline structure – weak enough for Earth’s eggshell crust to crack. The development of complex life appears even more closely tied to tectonics, and that may just be a missing piece in the evolutionary puzzle.
Read part two of the plate tectonics double-feature in EARTH Magazine, now online.
The July issue of EARTH is now available online. Read the cover story, “Burying the Sky,” to learn how two projects – one in Iceland, the other in eastern Washington state – are taking advantage of their common underlying geology to capture and store greenhouse gases as carbonate rock. For these stories and more, subscribe to EARTH Magazine

Forestry Training and Tree Planting Grants in Pennsylvania PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

TreeVitalize state-wide 2017 grant applications available

The Pennsylvania Urban & Community Forestry Council has secured funding for tree planting grants and innovative projects grants throughout the state through our partnership with the PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Tree planting grants will be available to Pennsylvania municipalities and non-profit agencies throughout the state for projects related to tree plantings with a strong volunteer base. Applicants are required to have the assistance of their local service forester and/or Penn State extension forester in developing a planting plan. Interested applicants should begin by contacting their local DCNR service forester or Penn State Extension Forester and include them in any conversations concerning proposed tree plantings. Those foresters can provide necessary guidance pertaining to grant opportunities as well as native species and sustainable projects. Applications are due September 30, 2016. Notifications will be posted by November 1st with grant terms to include January 1, 2017 – December 31, 2017.

For more information, or for a copy of the grant application, please contact Jessica Cavey, Development and Grants Coordinator, at (717) 599-8650 or

Tree Tenders on-site classes
Join thousands of other concerned citizens like yourself. Become a Tree Tender and help increase tree canopy cover in your community. Tree Tenders® is a training program that empowers concerned residents to make dramatic strides towards restoring and caring for the tree canopy in their communities. The course is designed for lay people and experts alike. Become one of the Tree Tenders restoring and tending your part of the forest. Instruction is provided by DCNR’s Bureau of Forestry, in partnership with Penn State Extension, PHS, and other local urban forestry experts.

Tree Tenders training includes: Tree Biology, Urban Stresses on Trees, Tree Identification,Tree Pruning and Root Care, Tree Planting Techniques, Community Organizing

Upcoming classes offered by Pennsylvania Horticultural Society:

September 21, 28, and October 5 – Philadelphia, PA – 5:45 PM to 9 PM

September 22, 29, and October 6 – New Hope, PA – 5:45 PM to 9 PM

September 28 and October 5 and 19 – Haverford, PA – 5:45 PM to 9 PM


Register online at

Stay tuned for next month’s email for dates and locations of other Tree Tenders classes around Pennsylvania this fall.


Managing Invasive Plants

August 19, 2016, 8:30 AM to 3 PM

Williamsport, PA

Invasive weeds and pests are a major threat to our natural and cultivated landscapes, spreading quickly and displacing or killing native plants. The Managing Invasive Plants program will provide participants with the knowledge and skills to properly identify invasive plants and develop strategies for treatment and control. Topics discussed will include invasive species identification, invasive plant control, and herbicide application methods, equipment, and safety. A morning classroom session will be followed by an afternoon field demonstration.


PDA pesticide applicators update credits will be offered: Category 05 (4 credits), Category 06 (4 credits), Category 10 (4 credits), Category 23 (4 credits), Core (4 Credits)

ost: $35

Online registration is available at

For more information, contact Vincent Cotrone at (570) 825-1701 or


2016 Tree Canopy Conference: Preserving Trees in Our Communities

October 13, 2016, 9 AM to 5 PM

Haverford College, Stokes Hall Auditorium

Why is Tree Canopy So Important? A healthy tree canopy provides important ecosystem services including air pollution removal, storm water runoff reduction, and energy conservation. Tree canopy provides habitat for wildlife, and also has a positive impact on human wellbeing, community cohesion, and economic stimuli. In this conference, we will look at tree canopy preservation and reduction, and consider some of the greatest threats communities are facing as they try to preserve canopy cover.

Featured Speakers:

  • Joseph Townsend, University of Delaware – The important benefits of trees in the urban environment
  • Jason Henning, USDA Forest Service – Computerized tools, like iTree, to measure canopy cover
  • Scott Wade, Longwood Gardens – Pennsylvania Champion Trees

Cost: $125 (includes lunch and break refreshments)

Continuing Education Units: This conference carries CEUs for ISA certified arborists and PA landscape architects.

Register online at

For more information or to register by phone, call the Morris Arboretum Education Department at (215) 247-5777.

This conference sponsored by Morris Arboretum School of Arboriculture and Haverford College Arboretum. Co- Sponsored by John E. Ward & Company Tree Experts.

Brian Wolyniak

Extension Urban Forester


(412) 482-3455

The Penn State Center – Pittsburgh

Extension and Outreach

1435 Bedford Avenue, Suite A

Pittsburgh, PA 15219

Julianne Schieffer

Extension Urban Forester


(610) 489-4315

Penn State Ecosystem Science &


1015 Bridge Rd

Collegeville PA 19426

More Training Courses in Water Resources and Ecology.

Webinar Identifying Urban and Industrial GHG Sources Using Continuous d13C Observations

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) come from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources and have a powerful global warming impact.  Understanding the magnitude and distribution of these emissions spatially and temporally is critical to evaluating present and future climate impacts. Stable isotope signatures of methane and carbon dioxide are often employed to investigate the relative importance of various sources (and sinks).

Picarro invites you to a webinar on Identifying Urban and Industrial GHG Sources Using Continuous d13C Observations. This live webinar, featuring Felix Vogel (Researcher, LSCE) and David Kim-Hak (Product Manager, Picarro), will focus on GHG source identification. Felix will share his experiences in monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and stable isotopes. David will present information about how Picarro technology has enabled continuous and in-situ measurements of stable isotopes, including providing information on the Picarro G2201-i for best-in-class greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and isotopic measurements. If you are interested in learning about urban and industrial GHG source identification, this is the webinar for you!

Picarro Live Webinar:
Identifying Urban and Industrial GHG Sources Using Continuous d13C Observations
Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Other Training Courses

Sustainability Issues

Watershed Management – Stream Ecology-Wetlands

Fracking- Hydraulic Fracturing

Colorado Snowmastodon Mammoths and Mastodons – Global Warming Glacial Interglacial

“While expanding a reservoir in Snowmass Village, Colorado, workers stumbled upon a big bone. And then another, and another, and another. Realizing they found something special, the workers called in the experts at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), who drove several hours to examine the site. Scientists quickly realized that this was no ordinary boneyard. Work on the reservoir halted, as DMNS scientists called in dozens of volunteers and experts from around the country to help excavate the site before construction continued. In a few weeks of excavating, the scientists and volunteers of the Snowmastodon Project uncovered an entire Pleistocene ecosystem, including fossils of giant ground sloths, long-horned bison, North American camels, mammoths, mastodons, insects and ancient plants.

The dig site was as renowned for its geologically unique setting as the community around it is known for skiing. The setting, an ancient alpine lake on top of a terrestrial high-point, meant that it once attracted animals as a watering hole, but was able to evade the destructive processes associated with glaciations. Learn more about what the site is showing scientists about past glacial and interglacial periods and what the site might suggest for the future, and explore the thousands of bones found at this unique site in the January 2016 EARTH Magazine cover story:

Alongside exclusive features like the Snowmastodon Project, EARTH Magazine continues to bring you unique and groundbreaking stories, such as new research that suggests intentionally burned floors in African huts can record Earth’s magnetic field, ongoing research that suggests the Midcontinent Rift may be a hybrid rift-large igneous province, and breaking news indicating that treated water from Southern California is so pure that other, more ominous elements are leaching into it from strata surrounding the aquifer. Don’t miss our feature on the great debate about whether mantle plumes exist. All this and more is available at”

Education Corner
More on Climate, Geology, Etc

Earth Dynamics: Geologic Time
Plate Tectonics – We are floating on magma.
Global Warming

Valley View Holds First High School Energy Fair Archbald Pennsylvania

Northeastern Pennsylvania gas companies went to Valley View High School in Lackawanna County to sponsor an energy fair introducing youth to energy careers.

The growth and dedication that has been displayed between the natural gas industry and educational institutions over the years has been staggering. While much of that relationship has been amongst local area colleges, high schools have been becoming closely involved too, as evidenced by the Energy Education Program offered at Valley View High School in Archbald.”

As this blog has noted before, the Energy Education Program offered by Valley View is the first of its kind in the state, as it brings energy-specific curriculum to the high school level and was developed as a collaboration between industry experts and school officials. The course covers nine different types of energy and regularly features speakers from the various industries.

But on Friday, Dec. 18, Valley View took the next big step in its program and hosted its first Energy Fair, which was planned and organized by the Energy Education Program class.

Read More about the Event and Program

We were planning to go to the event, but the presenter became ill.  Prior to the event, we did conduct training and educational course on energy conservation and Geothermal Energy.

Presentation on Sustainability Training (pdf)
Our Presentation on Careers in Energy – The Great Earth Engine (pdf)

More training Opportunities in Energy and the Environment

 How you can help the Keystone Clean Water Team ! Trying to encourage a positive change in Pennsylvania.

Timely Article – Residential Solar and Uniform Commercial Code: A Primer on Solar-Financiers’ Rights in a Foreclosure

Source: Travis Lowder, NREL  April 24, 2015 

“U.S. residential solar PV has been growing at a breakneck pace. Annual installations have increased nearly five-fold in the past five years and, in 2014, surpassed annual commercial capacity additions for the first time in the history of PV market tracking. Additionally, nearly a third of the entire solar industry’s workforce — comprising over 174,000 employees — works in residential solar.

This article will address these questions, but will first provide some background on the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), a critical piece of the puzzle. If you are already familiar with the workings of the UCC, then it may be best to skip to the section on “Why It Matters.

Security Interests and the UCC- Many solar financiers today offer at least the following three products: leases, power purchase agreements (PPAs), and loans.

Why It Matters: Fixtures vs. Personal Property- PMSIs will hold up if the collateral is regarded as personal property under the UCC. This may not be the case if they are regarded as “fixtures.”

What Can Be Done?”

This is a must read article if you are considering a solar or home-based renewable energy system.  Words do matter !

Read the full article.

New Program – Healthy Neighborhood Program

Everything we do began with an idea.

We have offered “Free” Assistance to this effort, but if you are a private well owner that needs assistance we are happy to help.

We realize your time is precious and the world is hectic. CCGG’s volunteers do only what they’re comfortable with. It can be a little or a lot.  Get YOUR WATER Tested – Discounted Screening Tests !

For more information, please go to CCGG’s About Page or contact us.  Follow us on Twitter 

Keystone Clean Water Team is a 501(c)(3) IRS approved nonprofit, volunteer organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law.    Unsolicited donations are appreciated (Helps us complete our mission), but we also do local educational workshops and local cellphone/small electronic recycling programs. If you would like to set up a program to help recycle cellphones at an event, business, or other organization.  Through our program we can recycle  cell phones, iPods, game systems, and small digital cameras.  If your interested, please contact us.  Our new PSAs.

Help the Organization and Get Your Water Tested or Order the Private Well Owner Guide (proceeds benefit This Organization).  Keystone Clean Water Team!

Hydraulic Fracturing Defined Fracking Words Matter Debate on Energy, Environmental, Humans

The word fracking – First, I personally and professionally dislike the word for a number of reasons. First it is jargon and second it is industry slang.  The word lends itself to redefinition and misuse.

Definitions – We are defining slang terms?

1) frack·ing, noun \ˈfra-kiŋ\ the injection of fluid into shale beds at high pressure in order to free up petroleum resources (such as oil or natural gas)  (Source:

My comments – not a bad definition – but the process is called hydraulic fracturing – they miss the issue of the use of chemicals to change the characteristics of water to reduce friction loss and prevent bacterial growth.  Also – there  is no Freeing up of a resource – the process creates an artificial pathway that causes the fuel to escape through the pipe or borehole rather than taking millions of years to migrate up through the rock strata.  Also – does not indicate that the process is regulate under the EPA UIC Program under special cases.

2) Fracking is the process by which the oil and gas industry undermines the public right to safe drinking water, clean air and healthy communities by using toxic chemicals and large volumes of water to extract unsustainable fossil fuels from the earth for profit.(Source: Food & Water Watch –

This is a great example of the lack of fact, but more about environmental spin doctors.  Now – this is not only an approach used by certain organizations.  Definition is more about a philsophical point than an actual definition that explains the process, but presents the potential things could happen.  The only part that is correct is “toxic chemicals are used”, “large volumes of water are used (but more is used to produce other sources of electricity), “extract fossil fuels”, “fossil fuels are not infinitely sustainable (but neither is any building or structure we build or even our cities), it does happen on earth, and it is done for a profit.  (Profit is not bad – non-profit organizations make a profit – they do not call it profit and this is a Capitalist society).   This definition tells you more about the Organization than the process.

3) Fracking – A slang term for hydraulic fracturing. Fracking refers to the procedure of creating fractures in rocks and rock formations by injecting fluid into cracks to force them further open. The larger fissures allow more oil and gas to flow out of the formation and into the wellbore, from where it can be extracted. (Source:
Misses the mark related to the nature of the chemicals that are used and the use of a propent to hold the fractures open so the gas and oil can migrate out of the formation into the borehole or pipeline, i.e., the artificial low pressure point, and not up through thousands of feet of rock.  I do like they indicate it is a slang term and the proper term is hydraulic fracturing.  It is a procedure – it is part of a process – NOT the whole process.

4) Fracking is the process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well.The process is carried out vertically or, more commonly, by drilling horizontally to the rock layer. The process can create new pathways to release gas or can be used to extend existing channels. (Source;

It is a process Yes – no mention of the slang nature of the work and the correct term – hydraulic fracturing.  It is NOT a Drilling Process – this is JUST Wrong.  Yes – Water, sand and chemicals are injected.  Chemicals are toxic    The sentence starting – “the process …..”  Is Just Wrong !

5) Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is the process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers deep within the earth. Fracking makes it possible to produce natural gas extraction in shale plays that were once unreachable with conventional technologies. Recent advancements in drilling technology have led to new man-made hydraulic fractures in shale plays that were once not available for exploration. In fact, three dimensional imaging helps scientists determine the precise locations for drilling. (Source:

No mention it is a slang term- statement is true, but does it create a definition?  I do like the mention of the word recent.  Because it is the recent improvements in the process that makes this feasible.

6) Hydraulic Fracturing – a method of mining in which cracks are created in a type of rock called shale in order to obtain gas, oil, or other substances that are inside it (Source:

Used the correct work – definition is clearly wrong.  The definition makes it sound like the old water mining techniques that were used in the 1800s to mine for gold by eroding mountains with high pressure water.

7)  fracking, fracking also spelled fracing or fraccing, also called hydrofracking, in full hydraulic fracturing,  in natural gas and petroleum production, the injection of a fluid at high pressure into an underground rock formation in order to open fissures and allow trapped gas or crude oil to flow through a pipe to a wellhead at the surface. Employed in combination with improved techniques for drilling horizontally through selected rock layers, hydraulic fracturing has opened up vast natural gas deposits in the United States. At the same time, the rapid rise of the practice, frequently in regions with no history of intensive oil and gas drilling, has raised concerns over its economic and environmental consequences.

Not a bad definition – lacks clarity on the nature of the fluid, but then goes on to add the “positive spin” of the Industry.  I do like the closing sentence – “The Rapid Rise” of the practice in areas with “no historic knowledge of the process” has created concerns that are economic and environmental.

If you are going to allow a definition to present a point – then – it would be appropriate to add to this “definition” at the end. These same individuals or communities did not care or were not concerned when these activities that produced fossil fuels for their consumption occurred in other communities or countries and these same communities were happy to develop in a manner that made them dependent on other communities to sustain themselves, i.e., NIMBY.

8. hydraulic fracturing – Also referred to as hydrofracking, hydrofracturing, and fracking, is a well development process that involves injecting water under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well. This is intended to increase the size and extent of existing bedrock fractures.  (Thanks USGS-

Not a great definition and the second sentence is misleading.

I do not like the term.  This term was the slang word used in the Batttlestar Galatica series as the “F” word – “Frac”.  This series was about an epic battle between man and machine.  NOW – it possible to view this change in energy production as a battle between big oil and humans- this is not the battle.  The battle is with us – We are the users, consumers, and wasters of this valuable resource that has been developed on this Earth over millions of years.  It is not renewable, but a high energy source that has powered the improvement of our health, safety, and welfare.  As our technology grows – we will develop new and more “renewable energy sources”, but we have to do our part to conserve energy and use it wisely.

My definition

1. Use the word – hydraulic fracturing and is one phase of an overall process.  The phases include drilling, installing protective casing, cementing, hydraulic fracturing, developing, and production.

2. Process that uses a slick water solution – This chemical solution is dangerous to handle and not suitable for consumption or direct contact without proper training and personal protective equipment.  The chemical solution is made up of 99.5 % water  that has been modified through the use of chemicals and other agents that prevent bacterial growth (i.e., biocide), dissolve carbonate scales (acids- HCL and citric acid), friction reduces (change the density of water – can be toxic- mineral oil, polyacrylamide (used in agriculture and soil stabilization potential health issue), corrosion inhibitors (n,n-dimethylformamide,  glycols (toxic)), surfactants (soaps/isopropanal),  gelling agents (gums/cellulose), crosslinkers (borate salts), breakers (ammonia persulfate), salts (KCL)  and propant (sand /ceramics)- Nice Image and Other Pdf.

An aside: The issue is not the chemicals used – but the potential for exposure – the primary exposure potential would be related to chemicals and releases in the environment during transport or surface storage and use.  The main defense would be controlling the movement of the chemicals into and through the community and the use of multiple containment systems for surface storage.  When the target formation is 3000 + feet below grade, the vertical migration of the fluid up to freshwater zones has an extremely low probability of occurrence.  Is it zero – NO, but the other pathways are more likely.

3. The fluid is injected under high pressure to overcome the weight of the material over the target formation.  Since the target formation is a shale, the shale has natural bedding plane fractures (looks like a book from the side), near vertical stress fractures, and curvilinear fractures associated with internal gas stress.  These fractures are not interconnected.  The hydraulic process aids in the parting of existing fractures, removing carbonate scales or coatings along bedding planes/fractures, and parting the formation enough to push sand or other proppant into this location to hold the fractures apart.  This stabilized pathway permits the gas and/or oil to escape at the lowest point of pressure, i.e., the casing and borehole that were constructed during the drilling phase.

This is a work in progress.  We would suggest viewing the following websites:

Private Well Owners Guide –
Links to presentations on water quality issues, movies/videos on well drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and gas production.   Movies and information about problems- Methane gas migration, loose of circulation, chemical changes, spills, and the need for changes in oil and gas law.


We seek new people at all skill levels for a variety of programs. One thing that everyone can do is attend meetings to share ideas on improving the Keystone Clean Water Team (CCGG Program), enabling us to better understand and address the concerns of well owners.  We look for people that can forward solid articles, help coordinate local education efforts, and more.  Become part of the Keystone Clean Water Team!.

Everything we do began with an idea.

We realize your time is precious and the world is hectic. CCGG’s volunteers do only what they’re comfortable with. It can be a little or a lot.  Get YOUR WATER Tested – Discounted Screening Tests !   Get educated on Drinking Water Quality in Pennsylvania.

For more information, please go to KCWT’s About Page, Brochure,  or contact us.

Keystone Clean Water Team /Carbon County Groundwater Guardians is a 501(c)(3) IRS approved nonprofit, volunteer organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law.  The IRS Officially Approved Name change to the Keystone Clean Water Team by the IRS.  Unsolicited donations are appreciated (Helps us complete our mission).

Help the Organization and Get Your Water Tested or Order the Private Well Owner Guide (proceeds benefit This Organization).





Carbon Sequestration Project Illinois – Ethanol Plant?

U.S. EPA Seeks Public Comment on Proposed Permit for Carbon Sequestration Injection Well in Decatur, Illinois

Release Date: 04/16/2014
Contact Information: Peter Cassell, 312-886-6234,

CHICAGO – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is accepting public comment on a proposed permit that would allow Archer Daniels Midland to inject carbon dioxide deep underground at a facility in Decatur, Illinois. This process – known as “carbon sequestration” – is a means of storing carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. The public comment period opens today and closes May 30, 2014; a public hearing will be held on May 21, 2014.

ADM plans to capture carbon dioxide emitted during the production of ethanol at the company’s Decatur facility and to inject the carbon dioxide deep underground in the proposed well. ADM’s goal is to capture and inject 1.1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. Sequestering 1.1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide each year is the equivalent of eliminating carbon emissions from 232,000 cars.

The public hearing on the proposed permit will begin at 7 p.m. on May 21 at the Decatur Public Library, 130 North Franklin Street. Oral and written comments will be accepted at the hearing. Two question-and-answer sessions will be held at the library before the public hearing: from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. and from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.

Draft documents and information about the public hearing are available at the Decatur Public Library and on EPA’s website Comments can be submitted online or mailed to Allan Batka, U.S. EPA (WU-16J), 77 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604-3590. For additional information contact EPA’s toll-free line at 800-621-8431, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (weekdays).

Grant Summary
Total cost $208 million. DOE share $141.5 million (68%).
The project is to test the storage potential of the Mount Simon Sandstone and the integrity of the overlying sealant rocks. 

Phase 1: DOE awarded $66.7 million of the $84.3 million needed for the project. The DOE announced on June 2010 that Decatur was one of 3 projects to receive up to $612 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act – matched by $368 million in private funding – to demonstrate large-scale carbon capture and storage from industrial sources.

1. Investing in a corn based ethanol facility ?  (I thought this was a huge water hog and barely efficient).
2. Would not it be better to make this investment in a coal application?

Underground Gas Storage
Sustainability, Green Design, and more