Putting the Words Timely and Geology Together with Climate

“Sedimentary layers record the history of Earth. They contain stratigraphic cycles and patterns that precisely reveal the succession of climatic and tectonic conditions that have occurred over millennia, thereby enhancing our ability to understand and predict the evolution of our planet. Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, — together with colleagues at the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and American and Spanish scientists — have been working on an analytical method that combines observing deep-water sedimentary strata and measuring in them the isotopic ratio between heavy and light carbon. They have discovered that the cycles that punctuate these sedimentary successions are not, as one might think, due solely to the erosion of mountains that surround the basin, but are more ascribable to sea level changes.  This research, which you can read in the journal Geology, paves the way for new uses of isotopic methods in exploration geology.”

Read More at  “Sea level as a metronome of Earth’s history

Different Perspective on Climate (Climate Science News)

Recommended Book – “The Beaches are Moving
Books on Climate Science

 

Bookmark and Share

Audubon “Birds and Climate” Wayne County Pennsylvania

The Audubon “Birds and Climate” report will be presented at 6:30pm on February  25, 2016 at the Himalayan Institute in Bethany, PA by Barbara Leo, Conservation Chair of the Northeast PA Audubon Society.  This will be a power point program illustrating the  current concerns for 314 species of North American birds that are facing severe threats to their survival.  You will learn how this can to averted and ways you can help.  Call (570)253-2364 for more information- other programs.

Self-Help and other Training –

Meditation, Yoga, Holistic Care, Reiki and more

 

Bookmark and Share

Colorado Snowmastodon Mammoths and Mastodons – Global Warming Glacial Interglacial

“While expanding a reservoir in Snowmass Village, Colorado, workers stumbled upon a big bone. And then another, and another, and another. Realizing they found something special, the workers called in the experts at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), who drove several hours to examine the site. Scientists quickly realized that this was no ordinary boneyard. Work on the reservoir halted, as DMNS scientists called in dozens of volunteers and experts from around the country to help excavate the site before construction continued. In a few weeks of excavating, the scientists and volunteers of the Snowmastodon Project uncovered an entire Pleistocene ecosystem, including fossils of giant ground sloths, long-horned bison, North American camels, mammoths, mastodons, insects and ancient plants.

The dig site was as renowned for its geologically unique setting as the community around it is known for skiing. The setting, an ancient alpine lake on top of a terrestrial high-point, meant that it once attracted animals as a watering hole, but was able to evade the destructive processes associated with glaciations. Learn more about what the site is showing scientists about past glacial and interglacial periods and what the site might suggest for the future, and explore the thousands of bones found at this unique site in the January 2016 EARTH Magazine cover story: http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/snowmastodon-project-mammoths-and-mastodons-lived-high-life-colorado.

Alongside exclusive features like the Snowmastodon Project, EARTH Magazine continues to bring you unique and groundbreaking stories, such as new research that suggests intentionally burned floors in African huts can record Earth’s magnetic field, ongoing research that suggests the Midcontinent Rift may be a hybrid rift-large igneous province, and breaking news indicating that treated water from Southern California is so pure that other, more ominous elements are leaching into it from strata surrounding the aquifer. Don’t miss our feature on the great debate about whether mantle plumes exist. All this and more is available at www.earthmagazine.org.”

Education Corner
More on Climate, Geology, Etc

Earth Dynamics: Geologic Time
Plate Tectonics – We are floating on magma.
Global Warming

Bookmark and Share

Valley View Holds First High School Energy Fair Archbald Pennsylvania

Northeastern Pennsylvania gas companies went to Valley View High School in Lackawanna County to sponsor an energy fair introducing youth to energy careers.

The growth and dedication that has been displayed between the natural gas industry and educational institutions over the years has been staggering. While much of that relationship has been amongst local area colleges, high schools have been becoming closely involved too, as evidenced by the Energy Education Program offered at Valley View High School in Archbald.”

As this blog has noted before, the Energy Education Program offered by Valley View is the first of its kind in the state, as it brings energy-specific curriculum to the high school level and was developed as a collaboration between industry experts and school officials. The course covers nine different types of energy and regularly features speakers from the various industries.

But on Friday, Dec. 18, Valley View took the next big step in its program and hosted its first Energy Fair, which was planned and organized by the Energy Education Program class.

Read More about the Event and Program

We were planning to go to the event, but the presenter became ill.  Prior to the event, we did conduct training and educational course on energy conservation and Geothermal Energy.

Presentation on Sustainability Training (pdf)
Our Presentation on Careers in Energy – The Great Earth Engine (pdf)

More training Opportunities in Energy and the Environment

 How you can help the Keystone Clean Water Team ! Trying to encourage a positive change in Pennsylvania.

Bookmark and Share

Fact Sheet: Methane Gas Migration and Mitigation

Methane gas has been a “hidden” problem in Northeastern Pennsylvania.  The gas is typically associated with wetlands, bogs, landfills, coal-producing formations, natural saline seeps, some glacial deposits, and gas storage areas.  Because of the development of the Marcellus Shale, the presence of methane gas and the potential for methane gas migration is a growing concern.   Methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is lighter than air.   Natural gas is mostly methane (70 – 90 % CH4), carbon dioxide (0 to 8 % CO2), plus other gases.  The other gases may include ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as well as small amounts of helium.

Methane gas is highly flammable between a lower explosion limit (LEL) of 5.53 percent by volume in air and an upper explosion limit (UEL) of 15 percent.  These percentages are equivalent to a methane concentration of 50,000 and 150,000 parts per million (ppm) in air.  The minimum concentration level at which the gas has the potential to explode is called the lower explosive limit (LEL); below the LEL level there is not enough gas to cause an explosion.  Above the UEL, there is inadequate oxygen to fuel combustion, but if the space is vented and the gas concentration drops below the UEL, the gas can become diluted enough to explode (it would require an ignition source).  Methane is not considered toxic, but it is an asphyxiant at a concentration of over 50 percent in air (it displaces oxygen).  Therefore, the primary risks for methane would be asphyxiation in a confined or poorly vented area or a potential explosion hazard.   As a safety measure, the natural gas industry adds mercaptans to the produced methane gas that enters the pipeline and your home. The mercaptans produce a very pungent odor so that gas leaks will be noticed, but unprocessed methane gas tends to have NO ODOR.  It is critical to note that some unprocessed methane gas may contain long chain hydrocarbon molecules that can create an odor.

From the available data in the Citizen Groundwater/Surfacewater Database, it would appear that the natural background level of methane in private wells in Northeastern Pennsylvania ranges from not detectable or trace levels to over 28 mg/L.  You may suspect the presence of methane gas in your water if you hear a “gurgling noise”, sputtering at the tap, the water has a lot of gas bubbles, is effervescent or fizzy.  

Note: If the pumping level of water in your well starts to fall below your pump intake, ordinary air may mix with the water and produce similar symptoms. When in doubt, contact a professional to determine the nature of the observed gas.

For more on this topic – Methane Gas Migration
Citizen Groundwater and Surfacewater Database

Bookmark and Share