Scare Pollution Why and How to Fix the EPA by Steve Milloy

Scare Pollution Why and How to Fix the EPA   

(Note: if you are a student or fact based professional or an environmental advocate (science based) – we recommend you read this book because it is clear the process of making and developing environmental regulations has moved away from the scientific method.  If you are a social justice warrior or an organizer or advocate, we also recommend reading this book, because if you really want to be an honest broker you should be open minded and get the facts.)

What is Scare Pollution about? Scare Pollution reveals the shockingly fraudulent science behind EPA’s flagship regulatory program which has been used to destroy the coal industry, justify global warming rules, and assert EPA’s control over our fossil fuel-dependent economy. Author Steve Milloy’s exposé tells the story of how he uncovered the fraud via his investigative journalism, original scientific research and revealing interactions with EPA, Congress, federal courts and green activists.

What is Scare Pollution’s main theme? EPA’s economy-destroying rules depend on the false claim that particulate matter (i.e. soot from smokestacks and tailpipes) is so toxic it kills 570,000 Americans per year. EPA claims even brief exposures to typical outdoor levels in the U.S. can kill almost instantly. Milloy thoroughly debunks this claim in multiple and creative ways ⎯ thereby clearly revealing the outrageous and costly fraud EPA has perpetrated on Americans.

What’s timely about Scare Pollution? President-elect Trump promised to rein in the out-of-control EPA. Scare Pollution shows just how out-of-control EPA is and offers a road map for reforming the agency.

What are some of Scare Pollution’s highlights?

Milloy Uncovers EPA’s Illegal Human Experiments – After EPA falsely claimed before Congress that inhaling even tiny amounts of soot was deadly, the agency sought to justify those outrageous claims with illegal experiments on elderly and sick subjects making them inhale diesel exhaust in an “exposure chamber.” EPA even experimented on 10-year old children with diesel exhaust.

The Exposure of EPA’s Secret Science – To avoid scrutiny of its false claims, EPA hid scientific data for more than 20 years – despite numerous demands from Congress including by subpoena and bills passed. Scare Pollution shows how Milloy discovered a treasure trove of data and led a team of scientific researchers to debunk EPA’s claims with new data.

Finally, a Much-Awaited Explanation of the Likely Cause of Historical Episodes of ‘Killer’ Air Pollution. EPA often cites fatal historical air pollution incidents to needlessly alarm the public about current air quality. Milloy finally debunks these claims with convincing analysis pointing to the likely actual culprit(s).

Who endorses Scare Pollution?

“As a leader in the fight to protect our environment and public health for nearly three decades, I am keenly aware of the scientific shortcomings of EPA’s agenda-driven air regulations that impose significant costs on our economy while yielding no meaningful benefits. Scare Pollution provides great insight into these problems and contributes to a timely discussion for how to reform the EPA.”
– Sen. James M. Inhofe (R-Okla.), Chairman, Committee on Environment and Public Works

“Twenty years ago, I chaired the committee of independent science advisors reviewing EPA’s determination that fine particulate matter causes mortality at concentrations commonly experienced in outdoor air in the US. Most of the advisors doubted the EPA’s finding for a number of reasons including the lack of a plausible biological mechanism, but the agency set stringent standards anyway. Scare Pollution confirms the committee’s original doubts in unique and compelling ways, and indicates that EPA’s human exposure scientists do not believe the Agency’s determination either. It’s a must read for those interested in how science is used at the EPA.”

– Dr. George T. Wolff, former Chairman of the EPA Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee.

Notes (From Brian Oram):

1. I am in the middle of reading this book  (Scare Pollution, 2016) – I was shocked.  My entry into Environmental Education and Earth Sciences included reading books like: “The Beaches are Moving”, “A Sand County Almanac”, “Silent Spring”, “Love Canal”, “Environmental Law” and  “Our Stolen Future”.

2. After going through the hysteria associated with global cooling and calls for quick action in the 1970s and 1980s, it seems that emotions and not science and logic were taking hold.  Then in the 1990s, I started to see the rise of the environmental or social justice movement and began to see science being used more as a political tool than a fact-based tool.  There also appeared to be a rise in the application of environmental issues to some of the”softer” sciences, such as: sociology.

3. By 2000, I was near the peak of my professional career and it was clear environmental regulations were becoming less based on science and facts, but based on court cases and settlements by environmental advocacy groups.   I have been an advocate for science and fact based regulations, not what seems corrected or fair.  It is about facts, not fear and we make positive change through honest debate based on facts and we do not make environmental laws or economic decisions based on a hypothesis.

4. In 2009 to current, I have actively tried to be a fact based professional and scientist, but it is clear the problem has been a verbal and media assault on science and the facts and in many cases we no longer have active debate, discussion, and the scientific method is operating in reverese.   This condition can be easily seen by reviewing the hysteria associated with natural gas development, land development  (Clean Stream Regulations), erosion and sedimentation control (riparian buffer zones),  climate change, and suggestions by some state regulators that the fact that something was peer reviewed means it is correct and can be used to write laws.

5. Very sad to say that I think the social justice warrior and voice may be winning, I only hope that the scientific method stays the foundation of how we make decisions as a community.   Do not let the 12 Monkeys Win !   My first attempt at this fight was in 2016 April as part of  Keystone College National Public Health Week.    Local Article on the Presentation – “Social media hype can turn misleading stories into needless widespread panic, he said.”

I have never recommended a book to read – this is the first, but I strongly recommend “Scare Pollution“, 2016.

I also like “Human Caused Global Warming“, but I really wish the author hired and used an editor.

Green Gangsters Rip Off While Enriching Themselves ? (Sounds like a “Hillary’s America Movie”)

Gangsters has been a common theme in this election cycle. Cruz mentioned, Movie Creator used to describe a candidate (Hillary’s America), and media used to question the ethics of another candidate, but applied to alternative energy seems interesting.   I do not normally link to this site, but for this article I will.

Mary Kay Barton
Silver Lake, NY – Retired Health Educator and Small Business Owner

Wind energy subsidies are financing green gangster projects intended to enrich the 0.1% at the expense of ratepayers and taxpayers. A recent Joe Mahoney article, “NY looks to the wind to replace its fossil fuel diet,” was full of half-truths and misinformation. There is nothing “free,” “clean” or “green” about industrial wind. Quite the contrary: the true costs of industrial wind development are astronomical. Yet, the wishful thinking of Governor Andrew Cuomo, Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, “green” ideologues, and “renewable” energy hustlers and subsidy seekers who benefit from this massive taxpayer and ratepayer rip-off has been repeated by countless “journalists” without question for years now.   (Link to the Article)

Chart 1 – Cost per Energy Outputcost_graph2

Chart Makes me think that running a car on electricity or natural gas (LNG) may be advisable.

Chart 2- Cost

levelized-cost-electricity-technologies

Clearly shows that on a cost basis – onshore wind and offshore wind becoming more viable.  Solar still very expensive.

 

Personal Note:
Please note – I did see Hillary’s America.  I did enjoy the movie.  Learned a lot about the history of the United States and the two party system.  I would recommend seeing the movie.

Webinar Identifying Urban and Industrial GHG Sources Using Continuous d13C Observations

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) come from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources and have a powerful global warming impact.  Understanding the magnitude and distribution of these emissions spatially and temporally is critical to evaluating present and future climate impacts. Stable isotope signatures of methane and carbon dioxide are often employed to investigate the relative importance of various sources (and sinks).

Picarro invites you to a webinar on Identifying Urban and Industrial GHG Sources Using Continuous d13C Observations. This live webinar, featuring Felix Vogel (Researcher, LSCE) and David Kim-Hak (Product Manager, Picarro), will focus on GHG source identification. Felix will share his experiences in monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and stable isotopes. David will present information about how Picarro technology has enabled continuous and in-situ measurements of stable isotopes, including providing information on the Picarro G2201-i for best-in-class greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and isotopic measurements. If you are interested in learning about urban and industrial GHG source identification, this is the webinar for you!

Picarro Live Webinar:
Identifying Urban and Industrial GHG Sources Using Continuous d13C Observations
Register
Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Other Training Courses

Sustainability Issues

Watershed Management – Stream Ecology-Wetlands

Fracking- Hydraulic Fracturing

AAPG American Association of Petroleum Geologists Training Courses

 

Training Courses Offered by the AAPG – AAPG Education Program
The American Association of Petroleum Geologists is an international organization with over 38,000 members in 100-plus countries

Fluvial Sedimentology and Geomorphology
John Holbrook, Ph.D. | 14 January 2016 | 2 p.m. CST

This short webinar will focus mainly on “source-to-sink,” and will detail methods used to quantify and qualify the sediment mass transported from the hinterland to the depocenter and the storage sites in route. This segment will train in the “fulcrum” approach for quantitatively approximating the sediment budget for ancient source-to-sink systems.

Ambient Seismic Imaging Throughout the Life Cycles of Unconventional Fields
Alfred Lacazette
| 21 January | 2 p.m. CDT

This e-symposium provides an overview of a new ambient seismic imaging method and applications of the method throughout the lifecycles (exploration through refracing) of unconventional oil and/or gas fields. These applications include: direct imaging of hydraulic fractures, hydraulically stimulated natural fractures, stimulated reservoir volumes, and producing volumes; stress mapping in three dimensions before, during and after fracing; and Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) frac and reservoir simulation.

Petroleum Geology Fundamentals
Susan Nash
| 1st of Each Month | 2 p.m. CDT

This course provides an overview of petroleum geology, from exploration to development. It provides foundational information required to work in the current industry environment, with content that ranges from a historical overview to methods of exploration, new technologies, subsurface geology, petroleum generation, reservoirs, traps, seals, petroleum systems, unconventional reservoirs, shale plays, geophysics, geochemistry, and more.

Courses are typically excellent – but can exceed most budgets.  For other training courses that are for basic continuing education – you may want to visit Training Professionals.

Colorado Snowmastodon Mammoths and Mastodons – Global Warming Glacial Interglacial

“While expanding a reservoir in Snowmass Village, Colorado, workers stumbled upon a big bone. And then another, and another, and another. Realizing they found something special, the workers called in the experts at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), who drove several hours to examine the site. Scientists quickly realized that this was no ordinary boneyard. Work on the reservoir halted, as DMNS scientists called in dozens of volunteers and experts from around the country to help excavate the site before construction continued. In a few weeks of excavating, the scientists and volunteers of the Snowmastodon Project uncovered an entire Pleistocene ecosystem, including fossils of giant ground sloths, long-horned bison, North American camels, mammoths, mastodons, insects and ancient plants.

The dig site was as renowned for its geologically unique setting as the community around it is known for skiing. The setting, an ancient alpine lake on top of a terrestrial high-point, meant that it once attracted animals as a watering hole, but was able to evade the destructive processes associated with glaciations. Learn more about what the site is showing scientists about past glacial and interglacial periods and what the site might suggest for the future, and explore the thousands of bones found at this unique site in the January 2016 EARTH Magazine cover story: http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/snowmastodon-project-mammoths-and-mastodons-lived-high-life-colorado.

Alongside exclusive features like the Snowmastodon Project, EARTH Magazine continues to bring you unique and groundbreaking stories, such as new research that suggests intentionally burned floors in African huts can record Earth’s magnetic field, ongoing research that suggests the Midcontinent Rift may be a hybrid rift-large igneous province, and breaking news indicating that treated water from Southern California is so pure that other, more ominous elements are leaching into it from strata surrounding the aquifer. Don’t miss our feature on the great debate about whether mantle plumes exist. All this and more is available at www.earthmagazine.org.”

Education Corner
More on Climate, Geology, Etc

Earth Dynamics: Geologic Time
Plate Tectonics – We are floating on magma.
Global Warming

The Great Earth Engine – Geothermal Energy for the USA

Reprint of article I wrote for Natural Awakenings Magazine

“When people think of renewable energy, their first thought is typically solar power or wind energy. As snowbirds return to their cooler climates, one natural and reliable renewable energy system is a geothermal or a ground-source heating and cooling system. These systems come with a variety of configurations, and a single system can heat or cool a home without natural gas, coal, oil or biomass. However, some electric power is required to run the system. This relatively obscure technology is robust, proven and available now to those willing to understand the simple beauty of these systems.

A geothermal system moves and stores energy rather than producing energy through combustion or resistance. Geothermal systems work by exchanging hot or cold air from the home with the stable stored energy in the ground, rather than by converting chemical energy to heat. This is a renewable energy system that is very efficient and has enough flexibility to fit a variety of applications. Some added benefits in addition to efficiency are that geothermal energy creates no pollution to our air or water and, other than electricity, they eliminate the need to purchase highly processed petrochemical fuel from less than environmentally conscious producers.

While the air temperature in northern climates can vary from season to season, the Earth’s temperature a few feet under the surface is essentially the same in winter and summer. In the winter, the system can heat a home using the Earth’s relatively warm core energy. In the summer, the same system can cool the home with the Earth’s relatively cool mass. Year-round, geothermal systems can produce hot water.

Geothermal heat pumps have an efficiency of over 300 to 500 percent (meaning they get a payback of three to five times the energy used to run the system). This efficiency  provides the heating/cooling needs at a cost that is 30 to 70 percent less expensive than conventional energy systems, without combustion, carbon dioxide, methane, water pollution or the waste generated by other energy systems.

Geothermal ground-source heating and cooling systems work during the night, when the sun is blocked by clouds and when the wind is not blowing. While electricity costs may vary, geothermal costs don’t fluctuate like natural firewood, gas, coal and heating oil. The ground-source system comes in a variety of configurations to easily fit new home construction or homes with a more conventional, existing duct-based heating and cooling system.

The geothermal system has three main components: connection to the Earth, delivery and distribution system and a geothermal heat pump. The Earth connection allows the system to pull or store heat in the Earth. In heating mode, the system uses the Earth connection to pull a small quantity of heat from the Earth to heat a person’s space. In cooling mode, the system does the reverse and transfers heat from the air back to the Earth. The distribution system can be a series of vertical connections or loops buried in the ground that transfer and help to distribute the energy.

The geothermal heat pump is very efficient energy transfer system that moves the energy from the building to the transfer fluid. The system does require an electrical source to run the heat pumps and circulation system, and it is critical that an existing home have a formal energy audit done prior to installing a system.

New construction should use green building and energy efficient insulating systems so the system can be properly sized.

Users can benefit from lower energy costs, elimination of water and air pollution and a significant reduction of the expensive and environmentally destructive infrastructure of fossil fuels by adapting geothermal systems as soon as possible. ”

Recent presented a training course on “Ground Source and Geothermal Energy in Archbald, PA” – Valley View Great Class !
We do not have an energy crisis – We have an Careers in Energy – The Great Earth Engine– We have an Energy Waste Crisis.

 

Note: Training Courses in the Energy Sector

Energy Industry in Northeast Pennsylvania

The Speakers conference on growing Pennsylvania industries and business activity around and beyond the drilling of Marcellus Shale gas. The overall theme of this conference is how Pennsylvania – specifically the Northeast and North central regions – can take advantage of Natural Gas resources to build a thriving, diverse economy that will not only weather the ups and downs of commodity prices, but will last for generations to come.

The event will be held on the campus of the Keystone College, just west of the city of Scranton. Full details are below:

 The Energy Industry in Northeast Pennsylvania: Local Benefits and Downstream Development

Keystone College, Brooks Hall Theatre
One College Green
La Plume, PA 18440
Thursday, May 14, 2015
9:00 am – 12:00 pm

The event will feature a series of speakers who will share a variety of perspectives regarding the development of the industry, its impact on local business and job growth, and the potential for future downstream development.

Representatives from local business, government, and education will all be present. Topics may include:

Local business role in the Marcellus supply chain
The benefits of affordable natural gas to manufacturing
Contributions to local government revenues
Job training
Natural gas vehicles and fuels

To Register for this event.

Everything we do began with an idea.

We have offered “Free” Assistance to this effort, but if you are a private well owner that needs assistance we are happy to help.

We realize your time is precious and the world is hectic. CCGG’s volunteers do only what they’re comfortable with. It can be a little or a lot.  Get YOUR WATER Tested – Discounted Screening Tests !

For more information, please go to CCGG’s About Page or contact us.  Follow us on Twitter 

Keystone Clean Water Team is a 501(c)(3) IRS approved nonprofit, volunteer organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law.    Unsolicited donations are appreciated (Helps us complete our mission), but we also do local educational workshops and local cellphone/small electronic recycling programs. If you would like to set up a program to help recycle cellphones at an event, business, or other organization.  Through our program we can recycle  cell phones, iPods, game systems, and small digital cameras.  If your interested, please contact us.  Our new PSAs.

Help the Organization and Get Your Water Tested or Order the Private Well Owner Guide (proceeds benefit This Organization).  Keystone Clean Water Team!

Nationwide Program – Neighborhood Environmental Report Your Home Health Status

Nationwide Program – The Keystone Clean Water Team is in pre-launch for a new USA program to help homeowners.  The program helps you to identify the existing and historic environmental hazards in your community.   We are working with a national environmental database search company to offer a report to help you understand your home’s or your future homes environmental health status within a community.  We are doing this by taking a snapshot of the current and historic environmental concerns and hazards in the community and a review of select criminal activity.

The program, Neighborhood Environmental Report™, offers a search of over 1,400 databases and millions of records of potential land and groundwater contamination within 1 mile radius of the entered address.  The report  includes a search for concerns that might be dangerous to a homeowner’s family or investment such as nearby leaking underground oil tanks, leaky underground fuel tanks (LUSTs), leaky above ground tanks (LASTs),  CDC Health Assessment Database,  landfills, hazardous waste sites, DOD facilities, gas and radiological sources, National Wetland Mapping, Flooding mapping data, drug houses, and clandestine drug labs.

gw_day

Healthy Communities = Healthy Kids and Families

Some of the most toxic and/or costly hazards exists outside of your home.  These contaminants can enter your home through direct human or animal contract or vapor intrusion into your home through the air, soil, or groundwater.  These hazards pose a threat to you and your family’s health and the value of your property.    Every report includes detailed information about what has been searched and identified as well as contact information for all governmental and private organizations cited in the databases.

The benefits of this report:

1. Help existing homeowners understand the hazards in their communities.
2. Aid future homeowners quickly learn about the historic hazards and concerns to conduct prior water quality, soils, or environmental testing and get the proper inspections.
3. Aid real estate professionals, investors, and appraisers evaluate the value of a home or residential property.
4. If you are selling your home, what a great way to introduce your home and surrounding community to any potential buyers, and as a home buyer, the Neighborhood Environmental Report helps provide peace of mind for you and your family.
5. For environmental groups, this is a great way to educate and inform your community about existing environmental hazards, develop local targeted sub-watershed monitoring programs, and educate children about their communities.  In some cases a larger search area is needed.
6. Home inspectors, environmental laboratories, and other may find the reports useful, but in many cases some additional review or interpretation will be needed to select the appropriate testing parameters, inspections, and monitoring.

(Example Report Dallas Pennsylvania)

We ran this report for a small business owner that was looking to purchase a residential property in Shavertown, PA.  The property was going to be purchased for cash.  We completed the search and search identified a specific potential problem with a past but active leak at a gasoline station.  This lead the buyer to ask for more information.   When the right questions were asked, it was determined that there may be some environmental hazards that could impact the value of the property.  In addition, the preliminary search suggested that the property could be located  in a floodplain.  The quote from the buyer – “The preliminary information and educational materials allowed me to better understand my risk and allow me to find a new property in a timely manner and save over $ 200,000.00” (GW, Shavertown, PA, 2015).

During the period from 2010 to 2011 – the following are the states with the most “Meth Lab” busts:  Missouri, Tennessee , Indiana , Kentucky, Oklahoma, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

We are in pre-launch on this service.  During pre-launch we are offering to complete compile this report for a fee of only $ 55.00.   After pre-launch and website design, we think the final cost will be $ 75 and up.  If you are interested, please do the following:

1. Order the product using this paypal link.




Cost of Each Report is only $ 55.00
 

2. Contact Mr. Brian Oram at the Keystone Clean Water Team (KCWT) at cleanwater@carbonwaters.org and provide the mailing address for the property, your contact information, email address, and phone number.   We can provide this service for the USA.  For some areas, we may need more information.

Terms and Conditions

1. Reports do not meet the terms and conditions of an environmental audit for real estate translations.
2. Reports can not be resold and the copyright will be maintained by the Keystone Clean Water Team.
3. Any analyses, estimates, ratings or risk codes provided in this Report are provided for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended to provide, nor should they be interpreted as providing any facts regarding, or prediction or forecast of, any environmental risk for any property. Only a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment performed by an environmental professional can provide information regarding the environmental risk for any property. This Report is not a replacement for a home inspection. This Report does not provide information pertaining to the interior of the target property such as, but not limited to: mold, asbestos, lead, radon or other issues. Additionally, the information provided in this Report is not to be construed as legal advice.
4. This report contains certain information described herein pertaining solely to the exterior of the target property, which information was obtained from a variety of public and other sources reasonably available to the database search company. The company. does not produce, maintain or verify the information contained in these sources; and assumes, without independent investigation, that the information in such sources is accurate and complete.

Everything we do began with an idea.

We have offered “Free” Assistance to this effort, but if you are a private well owner that needs assistance we are happy to help.

We realize your time is precious and the world is hectic. KCWT’s volunteers do only what they’re comfortable. It can be a little or a lot.  Get YOUR WATER Tested – Discounted Screening Tests, posting articles on social media, or assisting with a local event !

For more information, please go to KCWT’s About Page or contact us.  Follow us on Twitter 

Keystone Clean Water Team is a 501(c)(3) IRS approved nonprofit, volunteer organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law.    Unsolicited donations are appreciated (Helps us complete our mission), but we also do local educational workshops and local cellphone/small electronic recycling programs. If you would like to set up a program to help recycle cellphones at an event, business, or other organization.  Through our program we can recycle  cell phones, iPods, game systems, and small digital cameras.  If your interested, please contact us.  Our new PSAs.

Help the Organization and Get Your Water Tested or Order the Private Well Owner Guide (proceeds benefit This Organization).  Keystone Clean Water Team!

Pipeline Panel Discussion Northeastern Pennsylvania

Wilkes University is hosting a panel discussion entitled “Gas Pipelines in Northeastern PA: Challenges and Solutions” on Thursday, 19 March between 7:30 P.M. – 9:30 P.M.  The session will be held in Stark Learning Center, Room 101.  The event is free.

The purpose of the session will be to offer the public a balanced perspective on natural gas pipeline development.  Regulatory, planning, and landowner issues to protect PAs citizens and its environment while allowing for infrastructure development will be explored.

Panelists will include Mike Mara (UGI Energy Services), Dave Horn (LIUNA), Davitt Woodwell (Pennsylvania Environmental Council), Paul Metro (Pennsylvania Utility Commission), Josh Longmore (Luzerne County Conservation District), State Senator John T. Yudichak, Kenneth Klemow (Wilkes University), and Brian Oram (BF Environmental Consultants Inc).

The anticipated format will involve panelists responding to a series of prepared questions, followed up by moderated questions from the audience.

Ken

 Directions to Campus

Campus Map (You want Stark Learning Center)

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Links

Online Training Courses Related to Natural Gas Development
Sustainability Training
Stream Restoration Courses

Gas pipelines in Northeastern PA: Challenges and Solutions

Gas pipelines in Northeastern PA: Challenges and Solutions

 

Hydraulic Fracturing Defined Fracking Words Matter Debate on Energy, Environmental, Humans

The word fracking – First, I personally and professionally dislike the word for a number of reasons. First it is jargon and second it is industry slang.  The word lends itself to redefinition and misuse.

Definitions – We are defining slang terms?

1) frack·ing, noun \ˈfra-kiŋ\ the injection of fluid into shale beds at high pressure in order to free up petroleum resources (such as oil or natural gas)  (Source: http://grist.org/news/the-dictionary-finally-admits-fracking-is-here-to-stay/)

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My comments – not a bad definition – but the process is called hydraulic fracturing – they miss the issue of the use of chemicals to change the characteristics of water to reduce friction loss and prevent bacterial growth.  Also – there  is no Freeing up of a resource – the process creates an artificial pathway that causes the fuel to escape through the pipe or borehole rather than taking millions of years to migrate up through the rock strata.  Also – does not indicate that the process is regulate under the EPA UIC Program under special cases.

2) Fracking is the process by which the oil and gas industry undermines the public right to safe drinking water, clean air and healthy communities by using toxic chemicals and large volumes of water to extract unsustainable fossil fuels from the earth for profit.(Source: Food & Water Watch – http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/blogs/fracking-shows-its-viral-nature)

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This is a great example of the lack of fact, but more about environmental spin doctors.  Now – this is not only an approach used by certain organizations.  Definition is more about a philsophical point than an actual definition that explains the process, but presents the potential things could happen.  The only part that is correct is “toxic chemicals are used”, “large volumes of water are used (but more is used to produce other sources of electricity), “extract fossil fuels”, “fossil fuels are not infinitely sustainable (but neither is any building or structure we build or even our cities), it does happen on earth, and it is done for a profit.  (Profit is not bad – non-profit organizations make a profit – they do not call it profit and this is a Capitalist society).   This definition tells you more about the Organization than the process.

3) Fracking – A slang term for hydraulic fracturing. Fracking refers to the procedure of creating fractures in rocks and rock formations by injecting fluid into cracks to force them further open. The larger fissures allow more oil and gas to flow out of the formation and into the wellbore, from where it can be extracted. (Source: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fracking.asp)
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Misses the mark related to the nature of the chemicals that are used and the use of a propent to hold the fractures open so the gas and oil can migrate out of the formation into the borehole or pipeline, i.e., the artificial low pressure point, and not up through thousands of feet of rock.  I do like they indicate it is a slang term and the proper term is hydraulic fracturing.  It is a procedure – it is part of a process – NOT the whole process.

4) Fracking is the process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well.The process is carried out vertically or, more commonly, by drilling horizontally to the rock layer. The process can create new pathways to release gas or can be used to extend existing channels. (Source; http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-14432401)

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It is a process Yes – no mention of the slang nature of the work and the correct term – hydraulic fracturing.  It is NOT a Drilling Process – this is JUST Wrong.  Yes – Water, sand and chemicals are injected.  Chemicals are toxic    The sentence starting – “the process …..”  Is Just Wrong !

5) Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is the process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers deep within the earth. Fracking makes it possible to produce natural gas extraction in shale plays that were once unreachable with conventional technologies. Recent advancements in drilling technology have led to new man-made hydraulic fractures in shale plays that were once not available for exploration. In fact, three dimensional imaging helps scientists determine the precise locations for drilling. (Source: http://www.what-is-fracking.com/)

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No mention it is a slang term- statement is true, but does it create a definition?  I do like the mention of the word recent.  Because it is the recent improvements in the process that makes this feasible.

6) Hydraulic Fracturing – a method of mining in which cracks are created in a type of rock called shale in order to obtain gas, oil, or other substances that are inside it (Source: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/fracking)

*****
Used the correct work – definition is clearly wrong.  The definition makes it sound like the old water mining techniques that were used in the 1800s to mine for gold by eroding mountains with high pressure water.

7)  fracking, fracking also spelled fracing or fraccing, also called hydrofracking, in full hydraulic fracturing,  in natural gas and petroleum production, the injection of a fluid at high pressure into an underground rock formation in order to open fissures and allow trapped gas or crude oil to flow through a pipe to a wellhead at the surface. Employed in combination with improved techniques for drilling horizontally through selected rock layers, hydraulic fracturing has opened up vast natural gas deposits in the United States. At the same time, the rapid rise of the practice, frequently in regions with no history of intensive oil and gas drilling, has raised concerns over its economic and environmental consequences.

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Not a bad definition – lacks clarity on the nature of the fluid, but then goes on to add the “positive spin” of the Industry.  I do like the closing sentence – “The Rapid Rise” of the practice in areas with “no historic knowledge of the process” has created concerns that are economic and environmental.

If you are going to allow a definition to present a point – then – it would be appropriate to add to this “definition” at the end. These same individuals or communities did not care or were not concerned when these activities that produced fossil fuels for their consumption occurred in other communities or countries and these same communities were happy to develop in a manner that made them dependent on other communities to sustain themselves, i.e., NIMBY.

8. hydraulic fracturing – Also referred to as hydrofracking, hydrofracturing, and fracking, is a well development process that involves injecting water under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well. This is intended to increase the size and extent of existing bedrock fractures.  (Thanks USGS- http://energy.usgs.gov/GeneralInfo/HelpfulResources/EnergyGlossary.aspx#h)

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Not a great definition and the second sentence is misleading.

I do not like the term.  This term was the slang word used in the Batttlestar Galatica series as the “F” word – “Frac”.  This series was about an epic battle between man and machine.  NOW – it possible to view this change in energy production as a battle between big oil and humans- this is not the battle.  The battle is with us – We are the users, consumers, and wasters of this valuable resource that has been developed on this Earth over millions of years.  It is not renewable, but a high energy source that has powered the improvement of our health, safety, and welfare.  As our technology grows – we will develop new and more “renewable energy sources”, but we have to do our part to conserve energy and use it wisely.

My definition

1. Use the word – hydraulic fracturing and is one phase of an overall process.  The phases include drilling, installing protective casing, cementing, hydraulic fracturing, developing, and production.

2. Process that uses a slick water solution – This chemical solution is dangerous to handle and not suitable for consumption or direct contact without proper training and personal protective equipment.  The chemical solution is made up of 99.5 % water  that has been modified through the use of chemicals and other agents that prevent bacterial growth (i.e., biocide), dissolve carbonate scales (acids- HCL and citric acid), friction reduces (change the density of water – can be toxic- mineral oil, polyacrylamide (used in agriculture and soil stabilization potential health issue), corrosion inhibitors (n,n-dimethylformamide,  glycols (toxic)), surfactants (soaps/isopropanal),  gelling agents (gums/cellulose), crosslinkers (borate salts), breakers (ammonia persulfate), salts (KCL)  and propant (sand /ceramics)- Nice Image and Other Pdf.

An aside: The issue is not the chemicals used – but the potential for exposure – the primary exposure potential would be related to chemicals and releases in the environment during transport or surface storage and use.  The main defense would be controlling the movement of the chemicals into and through the community and the use of multiple containment systems for surface storage.  When the target formation is 3000 + feet below grade, the vertical migration of the fluid up to freshwater zones has an extremely low probability of occurrence.  Is it zero – NO, but the other pathways are more likely.

3. The fluid is injected under high pressure to overcome the weight of the material over the target formation.  Since the target formation is a shale, the shale has natural bedding plane fractures (looks like a book from the side), near vertical stress fractures, and curvilinear fractures associated with internal gas stress.  These fractures are not interconnected.  The hydraulic process aids in the parting of existing fractures, removing carbonate scales or coatings along bedding planes/fractures, and parting the formation enough to push sand or other proppant into this location to hold the fractures apart.  This stabilized pathway permits the gas and/or oil to escape at the lowest point of pressure, i.e., the casing and borehole that were constructed during the drilling phase.

This is a work in progress.  We would suggest viewing the following websites:

Private Well Owners Guide – http://www.private-well-owner.org
Links to presentations on water quality issues, movies/videos on well drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and gas production.   Movies and information about problems- Methane gas migration, loose of circulation, chemical changes, spills, and the need for changes in oil and gas law.

Volunteer

We seek new people at all skill levels for a variety of programs. One thing that everyone can do is attend meetings to share ideas on improving the Keystone Clean Water Team (CCGG Program), enabling us to better understand and address the concerns of well owners.  We look for people that can forward solid articles, help coordinate local education efforts, and more.  Become part of the Keystone Clean Water Team!.

Everything we do began with an idea.

We realize your time is precious and the world is hectic. CCGG’s volunteers do only what they’re comfortable with. It can be a little or a lot.  Get YOUR WATER Tested – Discounted Screening Tests !   Get educated on Drinking Water Quality in Pennsylvania.

For more information, please go to KCWT’s About Page, Brochure,  or contact us.

Keystone Clean Water Team /Carbon County Groundwater Guardians is a 501(c)(3) IRS approved nonprofit, volunteer organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law.  The IRS Officially Approved Name change to the Keystone Clean Water Team by the IRS.  Unsolicited donations are appreciated (Helps us complete our mission).

Help the Organization and Get Your Water Tested or Order the Private Well Owner Guide (proceeds benefit This Organization).